The difference between public international law and private international law

Public international law (or national law) is a series of customary or conventional rules, which is regarded as legally binding by civilized countries in their interactions, and only involves the rights and obligations of sovereign countries.
Private international law (or conflict of laws) can be defined as a rule chosen voluntarily by a particular state for the purpose of determining cases of foreign origin or colour.
Therefore, if two Englishmen sign a contract in Portugal for the sale of goods in Lisbon and pay in London, the British court will certainly recognize and apply Portuguese law, as long as it will affect the validity of the contract.
Private international law forms part of a state’s urban law to determine weather conditions involving foreign factors (I shall rule under its domestic law or the laws of other states; subject to the jurisdiction of other state courts.
Therefore, in the cases dealt with by private international law, some relevant facts are geographically related to foreign countries and may therefore raise questions about the determination or application of foreign laws in India or other appropriate foreign laws. Indian or foreign courts exercise jurisdiction.
Public international law deals only with rules concerning the rights and obligations of states (i.e. States) in interest. Generally speaking, it is the only concern of private international law to say that individuals and their transactions.
Therefore, in the case of private international law, disputes are private, although one of them may be a sovereign state. Moreover, unlike public international law, the private international law of each country is different. Similarly, there are as many private international law systems as urban law systems, so we have private international law rules in the fields of birth, marriage, divorce and bankruptcy, well contract death, etc.

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