Network crime can be divided into two aspects: (I) crimes against computer equipment or network; (II) crimes encouraged by computer equipment or network.
The law does not attempt to provide a comprehensive definition of cybercrime, but merely states that each of the crimes listed in the law will constitute cybercrime. The designated institution to combat cybercrime is the information technology institution established a few years ago.
The law defines every form of cybercrime and provides for fines ranging from fines to imprisonment, ranging from one month to 15 years. The law defines cybercrime as described below.
Crimes against computer networks or devices
Hacking: described as intentional and unauthorized access to a website, computer system, or computer network. According to the severity of the crime, different degrees of punishment are provided. For example, the following hacking incidents can increase penalties:
The introduction of viruses, data interference or intrusion that results in modification, damage, destruction or reconfiguration of data or information systems
Hackers invade computer systems or databases of government agencies, banks or financial institutions to steal confidential information
Unauthorized access, alteration or destruction of electronic medical data
Unauthorized modification or destruction of the website
Illegal interception or transmission of data or information
A denial of service (DOS) attack that attempts to make computer resources unavailable to the target user, or to disable access to the service provider
Malware or malware
Production, sale, purchase, import, distribution or display of software or computer resources (widely known as malware) designed to access computer systems for the purpose of committing cybercrime is a punishable offence under this law.
Crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices
Phishing: the law seems to have downplayed the important strategy of people disguised as trustworthy sources in cyberspace getting important information from Internet users. This is usually done using forged emails or instant messages, and most of these messages can be traced to foreign sources. Some of these fake emails try to avoid the spam filters that service providers install in each email account to filter out these emails. Recently, omantel, Oman’s leading telecommunications service provider, has alerted Internet users to suspicious e-mails, especially those seeking personal or sensitive information (such as user names, passwords, credit card or account details). An attacker may use the information captured with these decoys for fraudulent purposes or to access and use the victim’s account for spam. As a result, many of the affected real sources feel it is necessary to add a line to their email and messages to indicate that they will never seek password or billing information from customers via email.
Internet fraud and forgery: defined as fraud or forgery committed through a computer device or network will be classified as cyber crime. This will include the modification of electronic data or information for forgery, which is punishable by up to 15 years’ imprisonment under this law when committed against the government.
The law defines electronic fraud as the intentional and unauthorized introduction, modification or cancellation of data or information, or the deactivation of computer systems or networks, with the purpose of fraud or causing damage to end users or illegal gains.
Identity theft: defined as forgery or unauthorized use of credit or debit cards, or the use of computer resources to illegally access information in financial cards, or illegal gains obtained by any of the above methods are classified as cyber crimes.
The law also has the following characteristics: the following real-world crimes committed through cyberspace are cybercrimes:
Illicit trade in drugs and psychotropic substances
Infringement of copyright
Theft of art and cultural relics
illicit trading in arms
Illegal trade in human body parts
Dealing with pornography
Invasion of privacy
Obscene or offensive content
The law also solves the crime of white-collar company caused by computer equipment or network. Although it is difficult for legislators to predict and deal with all possible crimes, the law is an urgent start, which can avoid the attempt to infer existing criminal law superficially to apply the increasingly complex network world. The law also reflects the need for states to legislate computer and Internet crime laws to facilitate the development of general international treaties against multi jurisdictional Cybercrime