While crime continues to be a blight on Native lands, The Tribal Law and Order Act of 2009 (S.797) is currently awaiting action in the United States Senate. This bill was considered in committee, which has recommended it be considered by the Senate as a whole. Although it has been placed on a calendar of business, the order in which legislation is considered and voted on is determined by the majority party leadership, which is currently led by Democrat Harry Reid of Nevada. In the midst of intensive debate regarding health care reform, the chances for the Act to become law are unclear.
The Act would amend the Indian Law Enforcement Reform Act to make a variety of changes to increase Tribes’ law enforcement powers, and increase federal powers and responsibilities regarding crimes on Native land. The Act’s provisions include:
(1) Allowing federal officials, with the consent of the Tribe, to investigate offenses against Tribal criminal laws;
(2) Providing technical assistance and training to Tribal law enforcement officials regarding use of the National Criminal Information Center database;
(3) Requiring federal and local officials, when they decline to investigate crimes on Native land, to report to Native officials and requiring such officials, when they decline to prosecute, to turn over evidence to Native officials;
(4) Establishing in the criminal division of the Department of Justice an Office of Indian Country Crime to develop, enforce, and administer federal criminal laws in Tribal territories;
(5) Authorizing, at the request of a Tribe, concurrent federal-Tribal jurisdiction;
(6) Authorizing grants to state, Tribal, and local governments that enter into cooperative agreements, including agreements relating to mutual aid, hot pursuit of suspects, and cross-deputization;
(7) Requiring the Attorney General to allow Tribal and Bureau of Indian Affairs law enforcement agencies to directly access and enter information into federal criminal information databases (under current law, such access is limited); and
(8) Increasing the criminal sentences Tribal courts may impose.
The bill is supported by numerous agencies including the National Congress of American Indians, National American Indian Court Judges Association, National Indian Gaming Association, and Amnesty International. No organizations have registered a formal objection to the legislation.